Asian Waterbird Census 2018: Team Finds Rare Birds at Cemara Beach

Asian Waterbird Census 2018 from 6 to 21 January 2018 provided opportunity for Berbak-Sembilang National Park and Balai KSDA Jambi to held monitoring of migratory birds at Cemara Beach, Tanjung Jabung Timur Regency (Tanjabtim), Jambi Province, from the 15th -17 January 2018. This activity was supported by GEF-UNDP Sumatran Tiger Project.

Cemara Beach is known as one of the migratory water birds stop locations migrating from the north to the south part of the Earth. Pantai Cemara is also a part of Berbak Ramsar Site since 1992, and it was established by the Governor of Jambi as a migratory waterbird protection area through the Jambi Governor’s Decree No.456 of 1996.

This monitoring activity aimed to collect data on the type and number of migratory bird populations in Pantai Cemara and to promote Pantai Cemara as one of the special interest tourist sites for the observation of the Bird Migrant Bird, thereby increasing the economic income of the people around Cemara Beach and Berbak-Sembilang National Park. The promotion is also expected to foster birdwatching initiatives among students and the communities in Jambi Province, and to increase people’s attention and Tanjabtim Government towards the conservation of Cemara Beach.

This activity involved relevant stakeholders consisting of Tourism Department of Tanjabtim Government, Tourism Activity Organizer in Jambi, students and university students of University of Jambi, local and international NGO (Gita Buana, Zoological Society of London and Wetlands International Indonesia Program), and also local community in Pantai Cemara .

In this activity, migratory birdwatching team found 30 species of aquatic birds on Cemara Beach with a total population of 13,357 individuals dominated by Blue-sea Ekor-blorok (Limosa lapponica), Blue-tailed Sea (Limosa limosa) (Charadrius mongolus), Trinil Bedaran (Xenus cinereus), and Kedidi Besar (Calidris tenuirostris).

One of the observed Trinil species is Trinil Lumpur Asia (Limnodromus semipalmatus) with IUCN near threaten status, where its population is estimated to be only 23,000 in the world. Of the 30 species of Water Birds 2 Type is the type of resident, namely Little Egretta (Egretta garzetta) and Cangak Merah (Ardea purpurea).

The team also managed to find migratory orange-water birds (installed in Victoria, Australia), white flags (installed on North Island, New Zealand), and black-and-white flags (installed in Chongming Dao-China).

Cemara Beach area has the potential as a tourist attraction but requires improvement in infrastructure to facilitate access to the location. The existence of migratory birds can be a special attraction for domestic and foreign tourists. Currently to reach the Cemara Beach can be done by land using two-wheeled vehicles or by sea using a speedboat. But it is still difficult because of damaged roads and bridges and high waves in the west wind season (October – April).

Some conditions need to be of concern in Cemara beach are high abrasion and community activities that use motorcycles to take shells on the beach. Both of these can threaten the function of Pantai Cemara as a stopover location for the Bird Migrant Bird.

Recapitulation of Waterbird Monitoring Results in Pantai Cemara 

No. Name of Species Local name Number of individuals Info
Pantai Cemara  
1 Egretta garzetta Kuntul kecil                        13 Resident
2 Ardea purpurea Cangak merah                          2 Resident
3 Actitis hypoleucos Trinil pantai                        31 Migrant
4 Charadrius alexandrinus Cerek tilil                      654 Migrant
5 Charadrius leschenaultii Cerek-pasir besar                      344 Migrant
6 Charadrius mongolus Cerek-pasir Mongolia                   2.276 Migrant
7 Charadrius dealbatus White-faced Plover                          4 Migrant
8 Pluvialis fulva Cerek kernyut                        30 Migrant
9 Pluvialis squatarola Cerek besar                      166 Migrant
10 Calidris ferruginea Kedidi golgol                      108 Migrant
11 Calidris tenuirostris Kedidi besar                   1.054 Migrant
12 Calidris alba Kedidi putih                          6 Migrant
13 Calidris ruficollis Kedidi leher-merah                        52 Migrant
14 Xenus cinereus Trinil bedaran                   1.916 Migrant
15 Tringa totanus Trinil kaki-merah                        44 Migrant
16 Tringa nebularia Trinil kaki-hijau                      964 Migrant
17 Tringa stagnatilis Trinil rawa                        48 Migrant
18  Tringa glareola Trinil semak                          2 Migrant
19 Limosa limosa Biru-laut ekor-hitam                   2.106 Migrant
20 Limosa lapponica Biru-laut ekor-blorok                   3.368 Migrant
21 Limnodromus semipalmatus Trinil lumpur Asia                        30 Migrant
22 Numenius phaeopus Gajahan penggala                        14 Migrant
23 Numenius arquata Gajahan besar                          5 Migrant
24 Numenius madagascariensis Gajahan timur                          3 Migrant
25 Sterna hirundo Dara-laut kecil                        47 Migrant
26 Sterna albifrons Dara-laut kecil                          9 Migrant
27 Sterna caspia Dara-laut Kaspia                        16 Migrant
28 Sterna bengalensis Dara-laut Benggala                        15 Migrant
29 Sterna bergii Dara-laut jambul                          7 Migran
30 Chlidonia hybridus Dara-laut kumis                        23 Migrant
Total                13.357 Local and migratory birds

Contact 

Unit Manajemen Proyek Sumatran Tiger

Kementerian Lingkungan Hidup dan Kehutanan

Gd. Manggala Wanabakti, Blok 1, Lt.15, Ruang B7 Jl. Gatot Subroto, Senayan, Jakarta, 10270

Telp: +62 21 578 52990

Email: info@sumatrantiger.id

Deforestation Found in ​​Core Area of Sumatran Tiger Project

Deforestation takes place in the core area of ​​the Sumatran Tiger Project in Berbak Sembilang National Park which is an important habitat for Sumatran tiger populations. This area also has a high conservation value wetland forest.

This is revealed from the study of GIS Analyst from State University of Padang, Dedy Fitriawan for ZSL presented at Berbak Sembilang National Park Hall, Wednesday, December 20, 2017.

This study uses data from 2015 and 2016 with the exception of the land and forest fire periods that occurred in July 2015. The 2015 dataset uses data in the period before July 2015 (beginning of fire), while the 2016 dataset uses data after December 2015 (entering 2016 ).

In the eco-region, there are peat swamp forests and mangrove forests in the core areas of the Tiger Sumatran Project in Berbak Sembilang National Park. The result of the analysis revealed that in Berbak area, there were 3,947,85 Ha (4,08%) deforestation in Primary Rawa Forest, and 5,142,60 Ha (65,98%) in Secondary Swamp Forest.

More specifically in the core areas of the Tiger Sumatran Project in Berbak, there has been a deforestation of 2,182.14 Ha (5.16%) in the Primary Rawa Forest, and 1,408.68 Ha (46.31%) in the Secondary Swamp Forest.

In Sembilang area, deforestation occurred 2,561,40 Ha (10,79%) in Primary Rawa Forest; 1,463.49 Ha (69.05%) in Secondary Swamp Forest; 40.05 Ha (0.06%) in Primary Mangrove Forest; and 80.10 Ha (0.50%) in Secondary Mangrove Forest.

In the core area of ​​the Tiger Sumatran project in Sembilang, 2,513.88 ha of deforestation (16.81%) occurs in the Primary Swamp Forest; 1,384.02 Ha (81.60%) in Secondary Swamp Forest; 39.96 Ha (0.23%) in Primary Mangrove Forest; and 65.79 Ha (4.34%) in Secondary Mangrove Forest. “The pressure of development (plantations, mining) and the risk of land fires that lead to deforestation,” said Dedy.

According to Rudijanta Tjahja Nugraha, National Project Manager of the Sumatran Tiger Project, deforestation in the core region of Sumatran tigers should be reduced as the core area plays an important role in supporting the Sumatran tiger population.

Efforts to reduce deforestation in the core areas can be done through routine patrolling and forest fire prevention, since deforestation is partly due to the natural factor of prolonged dry season.

The Sumatran Tiger project continues to collaborate with various stakeholders monitoring the Sumatran tiger population and its ecosystem and patrolling through partners to safeguard the important areas of Sumatran tiger in four national parks in Sumatra. The four national parks are National Park (TN) Berbak Sembilang, Kerinci Seblat, Bukit Barisan Selatan and Gunung Leuser National Park.

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RBM National Workshop: State Must be Presented at Field

In order to increase conservation efforts of biodiversity and ecosystems in conservation areas, it is very important for the state to be presented at field because the answers to various problems are found on the ground. The resort-based management in national parks can be a cornerstone of theory and practice in the creation of forest management. “Our own creations, not creations of others,” said Director General of Conservation and Natural Resources and Ecosystems (KSDAE) Ir. Wiratno, M.Sc in National Workshop on Strengthening Implementation of Resort Based Management in Indonesian Conservation Areas, held on 13-14 December 2017 at Royal Safari Garden, Cisarua, Bogor.

According to Ir. Waldemar Hasiholan, M.Si, from Center for Education and Training of Human Resources for Environment and Forestry, the resort is a management unit not working unit. The resort should have authority and working with standard operating procedures (SOPs). For example, resorts are tasked with performing functional patrols and community surveys, sections supervise and national park offices conduct ecosystem and landscape surveys. “So the work of resorts, sections and national park offices are never overlapping,” he said.

Waldemar said there are eight principles of forest management that must be implemented. The performance of resorts, sections and offices should support these eight principles.

Waldemar’s first principle, forest must be landscape-based, so there is interaction between the park with the surrounding areas or villages. The second principle of forest management is multi functional. The third principle, forest management has multiple products.

The fourth principle, forest management should be based on research, science and technology. The fifth principle, forest management should be community-based or multi stakeholder. The sixth principles, forest management shall be resort-based. The seventh principle, forest management must be accompanied by law enforcement efforts and the last principle, forest protection inherent in management.

Ir. Mangaraja Gunung Nababan, ex Head of Natural Resources Conservation Center of Papua stated that managing the resort-based conservation area corresponds to the people’s need and answer their unbelief. “People want the state to be presented in the field and the community wants to ensure there is no violation in the management of conservation areas,” said Gunung Nababan.

According to Gunung Nababan, in the principle of conservation area management, the absence of state in the field according to him is like a house without a resident or owner. “If there is no house owner, thieves will enter,” he said. By being present in the field then transparency will be realized. “Finding obstacles in the field and how to overcome them,” said Mount Nababan.

Welcoming statement from Director General of KSDAE, Waldemar stated, every national park office has the freedom to develop their area according to its own typology. “The issue in most conservation areas is social issues, so there must be a social approach and an ecological approach,” he said.

The above social approach addressing other issues faced by the conservation area: the lack of human resources. According to Gunung Nababan, human resources (HR) becoming major problem in management of conservation areas. “Why don’t we work with the community?” he said. Using social and cultural approaches, conservation area managers can be creative in forming groups such as community partnerships and forest police, “Most people, they have not been facilitated and empowered,” he added.

Sumatran Tiger project in the first year has reviewed the status of RBM implementation, current patrol system and law enforcement capacity in the national park before proposing management recommendations. The RBM-SMART forest patrol is conducted routinely, data analysis and strategic planning are also underway, protected area plans are developed and proposed.

In the second year, the project conducted a thematic RBM-SMART workshop for target national parks to start RBM-SMART system and evaluate RBM-SMART. The annual evaluation of RBM-SMART is carried out in the area concerned, in national parks and at national level; along with the feasibility study and verification of tiger protected areas.

The National Workshop on Strengthening the Implementation of Resort Based Management fulfills the first component of Sumatran Tiger Project which is to increase the effectiveness of key protected area management institutions. This thematic national workshop event – in addition to discussing the institutional issues – also discusses the needs of planning and budgeting as well as management of data and information in the implementation of Resort-Based Management of Conservation Area (Resort Based Management).

One testimony of the success of resort-based management is delivered by Firdaus Rahman, Landscape Program Manager of Bukit Barisan Selatan, WCS Indonesia Program. According to Firdaus, tiger population increase in Bukit Barisan Selatan is the result of resort-based management implementation in the field. Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park is one of Sumatran Tiger Project locations.

Sumatran Tiger Project and WCS conduct a SMART-based patrol activity in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (TNBBS), particularly in Intensive Protection Zone covering 7 resorts of 17 resorts within the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. This is in line with efforts to improve effectiveness of priority conservation areas management in Sumatra, which is one of the main components of the project.

Intensive Protection Zone Area, decided by Decree of Director General of PHKA No SK.152 / IV-Set / 2015 Year 2015 on Intensive Protection Zone Development Policy as an effort to increase Sumatran Rhino population.
In its development, IPZ determination is not only beneficial for rhinoceros species but also for other key species such as tigers and Sumatran elephants.

The results of camera trap survey conducted by WCS team, the tiger population density increased from 1.6 tigers / 100 km2 in 2002 to 2.8 tigers / 100 km2 by 2015. The proportion of male and female tigers is 1: 3.

WCS and TN BBS from May 21 to November 20, 2015 have completed surveys of tiger populations and prey using surveillance cameras. Two facing camera traps had been successfully installed in 65 grids. Data from two grids could not be taken data because the camera is lost.

The results of this 2015 survey form the basis for a 2018 survey to assess whether tiger populations have improved in line with the increasing effectiveness of safeguards in conservation areas.

According to Rudijanta Tjahja Nugraha, National Project Manager, Sumatran Tiger Project, the workshop will not end here. “There are many advanced scenarios, one of them is giving input to the director general regulation,” he said. The Forum will also develop the RBM guidelines by providing the RBM indicator points and best practices that existed so far. “So it gives flexibility for colleagues to apply it,” he said.

According to Rudi, resort-based management (RBM) of conservation area can not be uniformed and has its own character. “That’s why the national park offices are freed to innovate. There should be consensus on the data so the data can support decisions taken at central level, “he added.

According to Director General of KSDAE, Wiratno, the technical implementation unit (UPT) should be responsible for potential development, KSDAE strength is evidence when the UPT is strong. “UPT is strong if they are given the discretion to use his brain and his heart. Strengthening UPT is my target. Change should be felt by people around the conservation area, “he said. Therefore, the Director General re-emphasized how important for national park officers to go to the field where they can find solutions to various problems. “Flying teams fly to help these UPT (to implement resort based management), please do support them,” he concluded.

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Human-Tiger Conflict Mitigation Campaign in Jambi

Balai TN Sembilang and BKSDA Jambi organized Human-Tiger Conflict Mitigation Campaign in Desa Simpang Datuk, Nipah Panjang District, Jambi.

Conflicts between humans and wildlife occur as a result of negative or direct interactions between humans and wildlife. Under certain circumstances the conflict may harm all parties involved in the conflict.

Conflicts are likely trigger negative attitudes towards wildlife, reducing human appreciation of wildlife and causing detrimental effects on conservation efforts.

The common disadvantages of conflict include, among others, the destruction of agricultural crops and or plantations and livestock breeding by wildlife, or even causing human casualties. On the other hand, it is not uncommon for conflicting wildlife to die after conflict resolution or actions.

In Jambi, especially in the area of ​​Berbak and Sembilang National Parks (TNBS) c onflicts between humans and wildlife that often occur are conflicts with Tiger and Crocodile.

In order to reduce the incidence of conflict especially with tiger, Office of TNBS along with KSDA Jambi and Zoological Society of London (ZSL) supported by GEF-UNDP project Sumatran Tiger organized preventive awareness efforts to Simpang Village residents and surrounding areas on December 15, 2017.

The event was held at Simpang Datuk Village, attended by Head of Simpang Datuk Village, Bhabinkamtibmas Simpang Datuk, members of communities from Simpang Datuk, Sungai Jeruk, Sungai Palas , Rantau Rasau Village and PT. Metro Yakin Jaya (MYJ).

In his opening remarks, Head of Simpang Datuk Village (Ambok Gauk bin Daeng P.) expressed his support for this campaign activity considering that in recent months tiger was seen entering PT. MYJ and people fell victim of a crocodile attack.

Village Head also hopes that such activities can be carried out continuously to raise public awareness not to disturb tiger and reduce incidence of crocodile attacks.

At the campaign event, KSDA Jambi Team provided technical solutions to prevent conflicts with tigers, procedures could be taken in case of wildlife conflicts, and the importance of Sumatran tiger conservation.

Bhabinkamtibmas Simpang Datuk also asked residents who posses firearm to report and hand over it to the Police because it violates emergency law no. 12 of 1951. Wildlife hunting of protected animals including tiger using firearm and snares are activities that violate criminal law.

Bhabinkamtibmas appealed to public who accidentally caught tiger using snares set up for boars at their own farm, to immediately report to authorities and not to injure or kill the tiger. If this is done then citizens will not be charged with lawsuits.

At the end of the event, calendars and billboards with information on how to avoid conflicts with wildlife and contact numbers of KSDA and TNBS in case of conflict were distributed to all attendees.

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Berbak Sembilang NP Holds Wetland Ecosystem Workshop

Jambi, 22 November 2017 – Berbak and Sembilang National Park facilitated by Sumatran Tiger – GEF – UNDP Project held Wetland Berbak Ecosystem and Key Species Workshop on November 21-22, 2017 at Hotel Odua Weston Jambi as part of the framework to prepare 2018-2027 Berbak National Park Long Term Management Plan.

The workshop explored data and information related to Berbak area to reformulate important values ​​of Berbak National Park in Berbak National Park’s RPJP 2018-2027, especially the important values related to wetland conservation and key species ​​that become the underlying reasons for Berbak was mandated to becoming a National Park.

This activity was attended by relevant stakeholders in Berbak National Park management area (Provincial Bappeda, Provincial Forestry Office, BKSDA Jambi, BTNBS, UPT Tahura Rangkayo Hitam, Bappeda Muara Jambi, Bappeda Tanjung Jabung Timur, ZSL, Gita Buana, Wetland International Pinang Sebatang) involving competent resource persons in the field of wetland conservation and flora-fauna species, especially Berbak areas, namely: Directorate of KK Directorate General KSDAE, Directorate of BPEE Directorate General of KSDAE, Directorate of KKH Directorate General of KSDAE, Bro. Yus Rusila Noor-Wetland International, Dr. Cherita Yunnia – Expert of Kemenko Maritim, Nursanti-Universitas Jambi, Dr. Dolly Priyatna- member of Tapir Specialist Group-IUCN SSC, Yoan Dinata-ZSL, Iding Ahmad Haidir-Student Work (S3) KemenLHK, Dr. Irawati-Researcher LIPI, Dr. Asmadi Saad-Expert BRG, Nursanti, S.Hut, M.Si.-Faculty of Forestry, University of Jambi and Madari – Historian from Bunaken National Park. The workshop discussion process was guided by Kristiani Fajar Wianti-lecturer of Faculty of Forestry UGM.

The workshop which was held for two days was officially opened by the Head of TN Berbak and Sembilang Ir. Pratono Puroso, M.Sc. The workshop is expected to provide recommendations for wetland ecosystem management and important species in TN Berbak before the formation of a Long Term Management Plan Document (RPJP) as a guideline in managing Berbak NP Area.

The Long Term Management Plan (RPJP) is management plan prepared based on the results of potential inventory of the region and the arrangement of zones within zones / blocks by taking into account the functions of the region, aspirations of parties and regional development plan. The management plan will assist the manager to fulfill the specific management mandate set for a conservation area. This mandate is the primary reason for area protection (UNESCO’s Outstanding Universal Value or IUCN key features ) and a key indicator of successful management.

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Loss of Wildlife Habitat, Main Driver of Zoonosis

Degradation and loss of wildlife habitat are the main drivers of zoonosis or infection that is transmitted among animals (especially vertebrates) to humans or vice versa. This was conveyed by Ibu Lulu ‘Agustina, Head of Biosafety, Focal Point One Health, Directorate of Biodiversity Conservation, Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

“The zoonotic threat level from degradation and habitat loss reached 44.8%,” he said during “Sumatran Strategic Disease Monitoring” Workshop held today, Wednesday, November 22 at Sahira Hotel, in Bogor. According to Forum Harimau Kita data, several wildlife species in Indonesia today have small populations and are located in some fragmented forest blocks. One of the species experiencing habitat fragmentation is Sumatran tiger, currently recorded totaling about 600 in nature in 23 landscapes throughout Sumatra.

With the isolation of population groups by human presence and land use changes for settlements, the edge effects faced by this tiger population are higher. The communities have livestocks and pets, are still actively hunting in the area by bringing hunting dogs.

Types of diseases that commonly infect animals have ability to adapt to environmental conditions and the presence of genetic mutations.

drh. Munawar Kholis, Chairman of Forum Harimau Kita, said, one of the diseases that can brings death to individual tigers is Canine Distemper caused by type of RNA viruses from the family of Paramyxoviridae. The disease initially detected in Russia, has possibility to spread in remaining tiger populations. The most potentially affected tigers are individual tigers residing in small population and close to human settlements where felids or canids are found. In addition to this disease, there are several other types of diseases that also need to be monitored by wildlife conservation practitioners and management authorities.

According to drh. Kholis, there are still many cases of conflict and death of wild tigers that are not sufficiently handled, so it is very necessary that the process of collecting, managing and inspecting the sample is coordinated by the competent authority (Directorate of KKH) to ensure cases which indicate dangerous disease can be handled appropriately.

Certain types of wildlife are not always easily sampled for health screening. Tiger is one example, to be able to do intentional sampling on tiger, we need to capture the tiger using a cage trap that is of course at risk. On the other hand there are frequent conflicts that result in tiger being captured, but the samples are not properly taken.

Field conditions also often encounter situations that are not ideal in terms of management and storage of samples. It is therefore necessary to have a team with the expertise given the mandate to coordinate and manage the sample to work with a laboratory that is trusted to continuously and systematically detect the types of dangerous diseases for wildlife and diseases that have the potential to spread between wildlife and livestock which can cause ecological losses.

Forum Harimau Kita is an association that has the vision and mission of preserving Sumatran Tiger and cooperating with various non-governmental organizations and government. Discussions with ecologists, wildlife health and conservation actors at field illustrate the need for a formal mechanism for managing information and samples from various sources to be best utilized in studying and collecting types of wildlife diseases.

One of Forum Harimau Kita strategies in supporting Sumatran tiger conservation is by facilitating initiatives at the national level with strategic value to synergize with the existing programs related to monitoring of dangerous diseases in Indonesia. Forum Harimau Kita is also a partner of Sumatran Tiger Project.

The government has developed One-Health concept to monitor diseases from domestic animals and wildlife. According to Mrs. Lulu ‘One Health is the concept of handling zoonotic disease and infectious diseases of emerging infections (PIE) implemented through integrated communication mechanisms, coordination and collaboration between 3 ministries, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health and Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

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Big Cats Featured in International Film Festival

Have all the big cats ever come under the international spotlight as a group? Probably not, but they will soon. The Secretariat of the Convention on International Trade in Endangered Species of Wild Fauna and Flora (CITES) and the Jackson Hole Wildlife Film Festival announced Sunday, 24 September 2017, that they are teaming up again to organize an international film festival, this time for the world’s big cats, to raise global awareness of the critical challenges facing these iconic species.

The Film Festival will be one of the global events that will anchor next year’s UN World Wildlife Day (3 March) celebrated around the theme of big cats. Winners will be announced at UN Headquarters in New York at a high level event to observe the Day.

The call for entry will start in October and close on 15 December 2017 and finalists will be announced in January 2018. Winners will be presented at a high level event to coincide with the global celebration of UN World Wildlife Day at UN Headquarters in New York on 3 March 2018.

Winning and finalist films will be subsequently showcased extensively throughout the world.Participants are asked to submit media in one or more of the following categories:

  1. Issues and solutions
  2. Conservation heroes
  3. People and big cats
  4. Science and conservation
  5. Micro movie (under 5 minutes).
  6. Local voices

Programmes created since 1 January 2010 are eligible for consideration. Visit this link for further information: International Film Festival for Big Cats 2018.

Indonesia Prepares STRAKOHAS 2018-2028

Sumatran tiger conservation efforts have made significant progress since the formulation of the Sumatran Tiger Conservation Action Plan Strategy (STRAKOHAS) in 2007 involving various stakeholders.

In the period 2007-2017, various tiger conservation actions have been undertaken by various components by the Government of Indonesia, Local Government, NGOs, universities, private sectors and communities.

Law enforcement and protection of species and habitats became the most important aspects to be strengthened in this period. Over the past 3 years, a total of 48 people have been convicted in connection with the Sumatran tiger illegal tradings.

Protection of Sumatran tiger habitat through forest patrolling is also continuously improved resulting 12,038 km patrols walked, 810 traps found and 87 cases of human and tiger conflicts handled.

Sumatran tiger population has also been estimated using Population Viability Analysis (PVA) modeling, so that the Sumatran tiger conservation strategy can be more comprehensively planned. The modelling found as many as 600 tigers in 23 small, medium and large landscapes throughout Sumatra.

However, Sumatran tigers are still facing ongoing threats both by hunting and habitat loss (i.e. conversion of forest areas to plantations, settlements and other development activities), resulting in human conflict with tigers that lead to tigers being killed or displaced from its habitat.

The condition becomes a challenge following the ending of STRAKOHAS 2007-2017 period this year. For that reason, the new STRAKOHAS (2018-2028) needs to be developed better and become reference in Sumatran tiger conservation and implemented by various parties.

In order to discuss and draft the document of STRAKOHAS 2018-2028, there are 61 institutions including Ministry of Environment and Forestry (KLHK) and its subsidiaries (Directorate General of KSDAE, Balai Besar and National Park Hall, KPH, KPHL, KPHK), Bappenas, LIPI, UNDP, GEF-UNDP PMU Sumatran Tiger Project, NGOs, universities and private companies will meet in Thematic Discussion Group (TGD) Preparation of the 2018-2028 Strakohas Document, on 13-15 September 2017 in Bogor.

From the meeting, it is hoped that the vision, mission, and objectives of STRAKOHAS 2018-2028 will be established along with list of strategic proposals and conservation actions STRAKOHAS 2018-2028; draft document STRAKOHAS 2018-2028 which will be discussed by the drafting team.

The document of STRAKOHAS 2018-2028 is expected to be completed later this year in order to ensure sustainability of STRAKOHAS 2007-2017.

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Actions Needed to Mitigate Human-Tiger Conflicts

Human-tiger conflict (HTC) inflicts economic and human lives. Action to mitigate human-tiger conflict is needed to prevent the loss of human property and life, while protecting the Sumatran tiger population.

Conflict with the biggest economic loss is when the tigers attack livestock so that the livestock are injured or killed. Human casualties occur when a tiger attacks people causing a person to be injured or killed.

For the first conflict, the tiger attacks on livestock, in the period 2001-2016, there had been 376 cases recorded (the largest number among four types of tiger and human conflict). While the tiger attack on humans occurred 184 times (data taken from the book “Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Human Tiger Conflicts in Sumatra)”.

Of 376 cases of tiger attacks on livestock, 1247 livestock fell prey to tiger attacks. Goats are in first position with 593 casualties (47%). In the second position is a cow with 210 casualties (16.8%), followed by buffalo, 83 casualties (6.6%), dogs, 169 casualties (13.6%) and chickens, 193 casualties (13.6%) .

In addition to attacking cattle, tigers in certain conditions also attack humans. The number of human deaths or injuries caused by tiger attacks reached 184 cases in the same period.

Habitat destruction is one of the triggers of human and tiger conflict. Due to the declining carrying capacity of ecosystems, as a major predator, tigers must hunt outside their territory. The number of prey and tiger area are increasingly reduced due to the destruction of forests, tigers’ natural habitat.

Actions to safeguard tiger populations and prevent damage to tiger ecosystems and habitats are being coordinated by Sumatran Tiger Project.

Working closely with various stakeholders, the project will increase capacity of protected area managers, build cross sector coordination systems for priority landscapes and promote sustainable financing for biodiversity management.

The project has held refresher training for METT (Management Effectiveness Tracking Tools) facilitators to improve management capacity of national parks. Working with the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Education and Training Center and other stakeholders, The Sumatran Tiger Project has also developed SMART (Spatial Monitoring and Reporting Tool) to support forest patrolling system.

Education on the importance of Sumatran tigers conservation is continuously conducted through Sumatran Tiger communication network. In the near future the project will train relevant stakeholders with communication and advocacy strategy to promote Sumatran tiger as a symbol of healthy and balance ecosystems. If the tiger population increases, the environment will be sustainable and prosperous.

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Conflicts Threaten Sumatran Tiger Population

Human and tiger conflicts negatively affect the number of tiger populations in Sumatra. This is discussed in the book “Spatio-temporal Patterns of Human-Tiger Conflicts in Sumatra (2001-2016)”.

There are two indicators that determine the negative impact of conflict on the Sumatran tiger population.

The first indicators are the tiger mortality index and the second is tiger removal index.

The tiger mortality index is measured by the number of tigers being killed in each conflict by poison, snares or killed after being rescued by government officials and staff of non-governmental organizations.

While the tiger removal index is the number of tigers being removed from their habitat when a conflict occurs. This tiger removal can occur because the tiger was killed or caught by the authorities and transferred to the zoo.

Data from 2001-2016 showed tiger mortality index and tiger removal index continue to increase.

The more the number of tigers killed and displaced, the higher the negative impact of conflict on tiger populations in Sumatra. Tiger populations will continue to decrease if human and tiger conflicts are not reduced or prevented. The Sumatran Tiger project is working with relevant stakeholders towards reducing human tiger conflicts.

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