Human Tiger Conflict Highest in 2010

Human and tiger conflicts continued to increase from 2001 and peaked in 2010. In that year there were 162 conflicts occurring predominantly from cases of tigers attacking cattle and tigers roaming around villages or residential areas.

After 2010, number of human and tiger conflicts continues to decline until 2016. The decline in the number of human and tiger conflicts is likely triggered by an increasing number of tigers being killed and displaced.

In the period 2001-2016, the number of tigers killed and displaced continued to increase. 130 tigers who died due to human and tiger conflicts. Only 5 tigers were transferred to other conservation sites after the conflict. A total of 43 tigers were sent to the zoo.

The number of tigers that ran after the conflict reached 879 tigers. of that number, as many as 8 tigers ran in the wounded condition. The number of dead and displaced tigers could have a negative impact on the tiger population.


Aceh: Province with Highest Tiger and Human Conflict

After discussing the types of human and tiger conflicts, the book “Spatio – Temporal Patterns of Human Tiger Conflicts in Sumatra 2001 – 2016” also describes the number of human and tiger conflicts per province in Sumatra.

From the data presented in the table, Aceh Province recorded the highest number of human and tiger conflicts compared to other provinces in Sumatra.

Of the four types of conflict that have been described, the total number of human and tiger conflicts that occurred in Aceh reached 230 incidents between 2001-2016. Cases of livestock depredations occupy the highest number in Aceh with 122 incidents.

Bengkulu province ranks second in number of human and tiger conflicts with 216 incidents. Tiger attacked human causing injuries or human casualties is the highest in Riau Province with 75 cases between 2001 – 2016.

The incidence of tiger attacked livestock animals (livestock depredations) is highest in Aceh province with 122 cases.

While the incidence of tiger sightings in human settlement or surrounding areas (stray tiger) most common in Lampung with the number of incidents as many as 88 cases. Jambi and Bengkulu provinces ranked second with 86 incidents.

The number of tigers being killed or caught was highest in Bengkulu province with 30 incidents followed by Jambi Province with 23 incidents. The conflict in North Sumatera Province appears to be minimal. However it does not reflect the real condition in North Sumatra due to lack of valid data from this region.


Human Tiger Conflict in Numbers

We recently read the case of a female Sumatran tiger being killed by a hunter in the forest area in ​​Gunung Leuser National Park. This type of conflicts is only one of the four human and tiger conflicts in Sumatra.

There are four types of human and tiger conflicts. The first is stray tiger when tigers are found wandering around the settlements or villages spreading fear but no casualties from either human or tiger.

The second type of conflict is livestock attack when tigers prey on cattle so that cattle are injured or killed. The third type of conflict is human attack, when a tiger attacks person causing injuries or human casualties. And the fourth type of conflict is when a tiger is killed by a human either with poison, snares, guns or other tools.

From the data obtained in the book “Spatio – Temporal Patterns of Human Tigers Conflicts in Sumatra 2001 – 2016”, the fourth conflict in which tigers are killed by humans by snares, toxins or other means does not occupy the top position in human and tiger conflicts.

Based on data collected from 2001-2016, there were 1065 cases of human-tiger conflicts in all parts of Sumatra.

The highest number of conflicts is the conflict of tigers preying on cattle with 376 cases. The second most common case was the stray tiger incident when tiger roamed around settlements or villages with 375 cases.

Human attacked directly by tigers so causing injuries and human casualties is in the third place with 184 cases. While the case of tigers being killed by snares, poison, gun shots and other tools is in the fourth position with 130 cases.


Tiger Facilitates METT Assessment in TN Berbak

Berbak and Sembilang National Park in cooperation with Zoological Society of London (ZSL) as partners of Balai Taman Nasional Berbak-Sembilang (BTNBS) through Project Tiger GEF-UNDP, conducted METT assessment of Berbak National Park Year 2017 on 28-29 August 2017 at Odua Weston Hotel Jambi.

The METT assessment event was attended by related stakeholders in Berbak area (Bappeda of Jambi Province, Jambi Provincial Forestry Office, University of Jambi, BKSDA Jambi, BPKH Region XIII Pangkal Pinang, ZSL, Wetland International and Gita Buana).

The assessment event was officially opened by the Head of Balai TNBS, and continued with presentation of METT related material by Mr. Rudijanta Nugraha NPM Tiger Project GEF-UNDP and Mrs. Dewi (Directorate of KK) as METT Assessment Facilitator.

Prior to METT assessment, Head of Berbak Sembilang National Park and the facilitators had given advice to participants not to only focus on METT value to be achieved by National Park but rather to the assessment process and identify spaces for improvement of management.

METT Assessment was done using Focus Group Discussion (FGD) method where every participant had his/her own argument, experience and understanding to determine METT value.


Types of Human and Tiger Conflict

As already mentioned in the previous article, the handling of human and tiger conflicts in Sumatra received serious attention after the Sumatra Sumatran tiger conservation strategy document was published in 2007.

The book “Spatio – Temporal Patterns of Human Tiger Conflicts in Sumatra 2001 – 2016” seeks to understand the locations of conflicts that cause the victims of livestock, humans and tigers. Reports in this book will be useful for preventing and reducing future human and tiger conflicts.

For that the authors collect data from agencies at the provincial level, the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, and non-governmental organizations such as HarimauKita, Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS), WWF, Zoological Society of London (ZSL) – Indonesia Program, LIF, PKHS, Fauna Flora International (FFI) and SRI working in tiger conservation. Before performing the analysis these data are verified to prevent duplicate data.

From these data, there are four types of human and tiger conflicts.

The first type of conflicts is stray tiger incidents. This incident occurred when the tiger roamed around the human settlement or village, causing fear but no casualties from both human and tiger.

The second type of human and tiger conflicts is when tigers prey on cattle so that cattle are injured or killed.

The third type of human and tiger conflicts when tigers attack humans that result in victims being injured or killed.

The fourth type of human and tiger conflicts is when a tiger is killed by a human either with poison, snares, rifles or other tools that cause the death of a tiger. From 2001-2016 data recorded 1065 cases of conflict between humans and tigers in all parts of the island of Sumatra. Information on the types of conflicts and their distribution will be discussed in the next article.


Only Sumatran Tiger Left in Wild

Indonesia has three tiger sub-species namely Sumatran tiger (Panthera tigris sumatrae), Bali tiger (Panthera tigris balica) and Java tiger (Panthera tigris sondaica). Of the three tiger siblings are only the remaining Sumatran tiger. Bali tigers and Java tigers are declared extinct based on IUCN report 2014). This is revealed in the book “Spatio – Temporal Patterns of Human Tiger Conflicts in Sumatra 2001 – 2016”.

Humans have been living side by side with the tiger for a long time. Human and tiger conflicts continue to occur. The extinction of Javanese tiger is proof, human and tiger conflicts could be the main cause of the extinction of this rare species.

Currently only Sumatran tigers are left in Indonesia. The latest population analysis by the Ministry of Environment and Forests this year (2017) mentions the Sumatran tiger population is currently less than 700 tigers in wild. This population is constantly threatened by poaching including human and wildlife conflicts.

Considering this critical situation, efforts to prevent and reduce all cases that lead to tiger deaths need to be done to succeed Sumatran tiger conservation.

Specifically with regard to human and tiger conflicts, to prevent and mitigate such conflicts, an understanding of the scale and distribution of critical conflicts is needed to allocate resources effectively and efficiently. The last report on the characteristics of human and tiger conflicts was published by Nyhus & Tilson in 2004.

The handling of human and tiger conflicts in Sumatra received serious attention after the document of Sumatran tiger conservation strategy was published in 2007. The book “Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Human Tiger Conflicts in Sumatra 2001-2016” analyze the locations of conflicts and the victims of conflicts including livestock, humans and tigers . Reports in this book will be useful to prevent and reduce future human and tiger conflicts in the future. Project Sumatran Tiger will report the findings into series of articles discussing human tiger conflicts.


Human and Wild Cats Conflicts Continue to Increase

In the world there are various types of wild cat mammals, ranging from carakal, lynx, jaguar, leopard, lion, puma, snow leopard to tiger. Of all the types of wildcats in the world, as many as 75% involved in conflict with humans.

This is revealed in a book titled “Spatio-temporal Patterns of Human Tiger Conflicts in Sumatra” jointly published by the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, the Sumatran Tiger Project and Forum Harimau Kita.

The book, written by Erlinda C Kartika, states, as a predator, various types of wildcats are considered as a threat to humans and livestock. Wild cats need a very wide range of habitat to roam and require a large supply of food.

The tiger (Panthera tigris) is one of the wild cat species that is in conflict with humans. Human and tiger conflicts are not only detrimental to humans as well as to tiger populations. Humans and tigers can lose their lives by this deadly conflict.

Due to these human and tiger conflicts, the existence of tigers receive negative impression from member of communities. Unsustainable development that damages the ecosystem is the main cause of the emerging conflict between humans and tigers. Habitat of tigers destroyed, forests cleared for agricultural land and other infratructures. Tigers lose their territory to search for prey and breed, as their life-supporting ecosystem continues to be undermined.

The impact of world tiger population continues to decline in recent years. IUCN data in 2014 mentions, there are less than 3000 tigers left in the world.

The Sumatran Tiger project, together with the government and all concerned parties, continues to conserve the ecosystems on the island of Sumatra by using recovery of tiger habitat and their populations as an indicator of its success. Let’s support it together.


Tiger Supports SMART System Development

The Sumatran Tiger project is providing computer equipment that will be used for SMART patrol database. The computer equipment provided consist of 4 Desktop computer units equipped with UPS, 4 laser jet printers, 4 portable WiFi units and 1 unit of scanner ADF (Automatic Document Feeder).

Using SMART database computer equipment, patrolling data and activities can be properly recorded so that patrol activities can be improved, monitored and analyzed in the future planning.

The availability of computer equipment for SMART data center is the first stage for establishing the SMART system in Berbak Sembilang National Park (TNBS). TNBS will assign personnel who become SMART operators through the head of the ballade.

Furthermore, SMART operator training will be conducted by the partner of International Non Government Organization, Zoological Society of London (ZSL). The submission of the computer will be done after the SMART implementation training on 21-25 August.

In order to build the SMART system, the project also supports SMART forest protection patrol activities by Balai TNBS. Prior to the implementation of patrols conducted a patrol preparation briefing with ZSL speakers. In the preparatory meeting ZSL explained the SMART-based patrol implementation techniques to optimize support from the project.

The SMART-based Patrol activities that have been implemented are Tiger Protection Patrol Unit (TPPU) patrols managed by ZSL involving several TNBS Polhut officers.


Tiger Facilitates SMART Patrol

The Sumatran Tiger project facilitates the introduction of SMART-based patrols and forest safeguards in the national park area from hunting and encroachment activities, in particular the hunting of Sumatran tigers.

The SMART forest safeguard patrol on Berbak Sembilang National Park (TNBS) was conducted in Jambi on 14-18 June 2017 and in Palembang, 15-18 June 2017. This activity aims to internalize the SMART forest protection patrol at Balai TNBS.

Patrol conducted for 5 days, at 3 SPTN (Section of TN Management) at 9 resort that is: Section I: Pematang Raman Resort, Sei Rambut Resort, Rantau Rasau Resort, Section II: Lalan Resort, Simpang Satu Resort, Solok Buntu Resort and Section III: Cemara Resort, Simpang Malaka Resort , Terusan Dalam Resort.

The encroachment within TNBS area that has been observed in the form of taking wood from dead trees due to fire and clearing the burned land inside the park area becomes agricultural land. In this patrol the team managed to seize several evidences; chainsaws and other maintenance equipment.


Tiger & TNBS Prepare Surveillance Camera Installment

The Sumatran Tiger project facilitates a technical discussion for the installation of surveillance cameras or camera traps by Balai TNBS (funded by DIPA Balai TNBS), with speakers from ZSL. This technical meeting is aimed to equip the staff of Berbak Sembilang National Park Hall with sufficient technical capability to carry out the activity.

In the inspectorate general’s audit in 2016, this activity became a finding and was considered ineffective because the installed cameras did not get data / photo of key species such as the Sumatran tiger.

In this event the ZSL facilitator, Yoan Dinata provided technical guidance on how to install and how to operate the camera trap. The TNBS team that attended the event consisted of 3 teams. Each team will be accompanied by one ZSL personnel to install 4-point camera traps in pairs (with a total of 8 surveillance cameras per team).