Preventing Wildlife Conflicts, Saving Lifes

The Colt’s engine growling across the dirt road, partly still muddy, from the rain last night. The car whose two rear tires were wrapped around by chains moving slowly but steadily passing sloppy terrains.

Representatives from local government, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Police, TNI, Sumatran Tiger Project, philanthropic organization and non-governmental organizations sit – some of them standing – on the truck. “The more passengers, the truck becoming more stable on the road,” said the driver who guided our group.

This group has just finished attending village level Wildlife Conflict Task Force Meeting in Margomulyo Village, Semaka District, Tanggamus District, Lampung Province, organized by Wildlife Conservation Society – Indonesia Program (WCS-IP) supported by Sumatran Tiger Project , GEF, UNDP, KFW, German Cooperation and USAID.

WCS-IP in collaboration with Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park Office and Lampung Provincial Forest Service, gathered representatives of human and wildlife conflict mitigation task forces from various villages in Lampung, Bengkulu and Aceh.

Participants in this workshop shared knowledge and experiences in conflict mitigation and promote community-based human and wildlife conflict management approaches at site (village) level. The initiative also strengthened community’s resilient in regional and national platforms.

Indra Exploitasia, Director of Biodiversity Conservation, in her written address stated, “The shrinking living space and home range of large animals such as Sumatran elephant and Sumatran tiger ultimately forced the two species entering village areas and ultimately destroyed community’s farming and preyed on residents’ livestock. ”

According to Indra, strong institutional supports and effective role-sharing between parties are needed to overcome human and wildlife conflicts.

Technical implementation unit in the field responded positively to Indra’s remark. Siti Muksidah, Head of National Park Management Region I at Bukit Barisan Selatan NP stated, “We, at the national park, also placed the handling of human and animal conflicts (KMS) as one of our main priorities,” she said.

According to Siti, collaborating with communities, BB BBSNP has successfully handled 225 human and wildlife cases between 2008 and June 2019. One type of cooperation with community was to form a task force at the village level through Independent Village Community (MDM) program, accompanied by WCS- IP and supported by Sumatran Tiger Project.

Noviar Andayani, WCS-IP Director stated, “By strengthening KMS mitigation at site level, villagers could actively preventing escalation of human and animal conflict at site level by providing an appropriate initial responses.” Until mid-2019, WCS-IP and other parties has been facilitating 22 Independent Village Community units, including establishing task forces for conflict at site level.

The Deputy Governor of Lampung, Chusnunia Chalim, appreciated the workshop which took place on November 24-25. “Government realizes that human and wildlife conflict harming not only to citizens but also adversely affecting number and distribution of tiger and elephant populations which are charismatic animals of Sumatra,” he said.

As living creatures, wildlife and humans have the right to live. Thus we must be able to live side by side with other living creatures by preventing conflict and maintaining ecosystem balance.

“Without animals, the balance of ecosystem could not be materialized. Animals have function controlling pests and pollinating plants such as coffee that is community’s commodity,” Noviar Andayani said. Humans will not be able to do the task themself.

In this workshop, representatives of 16 Villages in Lampung, Bengkulu and Aceh Provinces also signed Margomulyo Declaration. They agreed to form a network of village-level human and wildlife conflict task forces throughout Sumatra.

This network will serve as communication and learning forum in overcoming conflict to help community’s welfare and wildlife conservation in Sumatra. Hopefully this good intention can continue to be implemented with the support of all parties.

@SumatranTigerID

Coordination to Handle Human and Wildlife Conflict

Sumatran Tiger Project, supported coordination meeting on Tuesday, June 18, 2019, to handle human wildlife conflict at BKSDA (Center for Natural Resources Conservation) office, North Sumatra. This coordination meeting is also an effort to respond to current trend of increasing human and wildlife conflicts in the area.

In a meeting chaired by Head of North Sumatra’s BBKSDA, Regent of Padang Lawas, Ali Sutan and people of Padang Lawas Regency, offered supports to overcome human and wildlife conflicts. Communities in Padang Lawas realized Sumatran Tiger is protected animals and needed government support to save these endangered species.

Responding to human and tiger conflict, Padang Lawas District Government has extended Social Emergency Decree until 27 June 2019, which was a follow-up to the parties’ meeting on 14 June 2019 in Sibuhuan.

In this meeting, Governor of North Sumatra gave instruction to not to shoot / kill Sumatran Tiger in Padang Lawas. The meeting also discussed development of Desa Mandiri Konflik or Conflict Resilient Village and alternative economy for people in conflict-affected areas. This year there is no expansion for plantation in North Sumatra Province. Community economic empowerment will involve plantation companies through CSR mechanisms or corporate social responsibility.

The parties participating in this meeting also agreed to immediately revise the North Sumatra Governor’s Decree regarding the Coordination Team and the Task Force on Controlling of Wild Animal Conflict in North Sumatra Province. This revision must include National Disaster Management Agency and financing using available CSR and Local Government Funds.

Short-term solution to human and wildlife conflict, stakeholders agreed to carry out several activities:

1. Building tiger proof enclosures in conflict-prone areas.

2. Developing Conflict Resilient Villages: forming task force teams, Community training, initiate village funds for conflict mitigation team. WCS is willing to help initiate and provide training in developing Conflict Resilient Village in conflict-prone areas, with assistants from North Sumatra Regency and BBKSDA.

3. Encouraging companies to implement their responsibility stated in their RKL (Environmental Management Plan) and RPL (Environmental Monitoring Plan).

4. Strengthening local wisdom that supports conservation of wildlife habitat in Padang Lawas, for example by providing prey for tigers and using barbed wire fences.

In long term, funding from Sumatran Tiger Project (GEF-UNDP) and other non-binding sources will be used to support Governor’s Decree revision regarding conflict prevention team.

Coordination meeting which was also attended by Director of KKH, Indra Exploitasia also agreed to establish the Padang Lawas Tiger Conflict Task Force Team, under Padang Lawas Regent’s Decree. Padang Lawas Regent and BPBD (Regional Disaster Management Agency) will act as board of trustee and Head of the North Sumatra KSDA Office will become daily chief executive.

@SumatranTigerID

 

Menumbuhkan Kesadaran Mitigasi Konflik Manusia dengan Harimau

Sorry, this entry is only available in Indonesian. For the sake of viewer convenience, the content is shown below in the alternative language. You may click the link to switch the active language.

Sebuah konflik pecah pada pekan ketiga Mei, di Desa Pungut Mudik. Menjelang sore, harimau menerkam Rusmayati saat berladang. Sang suami, Usman, menyelamatkannya.

Harimau merobek bahu kanan warga Dusun Pemetik Kecil ini. Harimau biasanya menyerang bagian yang mematikan: urat tengkuk. Tetapi, raja hutan ini sebenarnya menghindari manusia. Baginya, manusia bukan mangsa, tapi lebih sebagai pesaing. Serangan di bahu memunculkan dugaan si harimau masih muda. Ia masih belajar berburu mangsa. Tragisnya, ia menyasar manusia untuk latihan berburu.

Tensi konflik pun meninggi. Tim mitigasi konflik, yang sebulan lalu menyambangi Pungut Mudik, kembali lagi. Sebulan silam, konflik masih berada dalam level sedang: harimau berkeliaran dan memangsa hewan piaraan. Tim turun berdasarkan informasi dari media sosial. “Tidak ada laporan dari masyarakat,” ungkap Rahmat Arifin, polisi hutan taman nasional. Hari itu, Arifin yang turun bersama Pelestarian Harimau Sumatra Kerinci Seblat dan Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan Kerinci, menemukan jejak segar harimau. “Jejaknya sudah kita hapus. Kami khawatir ada pemburu yang datang, dan melacak harimau.”

Tiadanya laporan konflik cukup meresahkan. Tanpa kehadiran tim mitigasi, masyarakat bisa bertindak sekehendak hati, dan harimau menjadi korban. Bila ada informasi, pihak berwenang harus merespon secepatnya. “Manusia dan harimau sama-sama penting,” tutur Arifin, “kita datang agar masyarakat nyaman, dan harimau selamat.”

Itu posisi yang tak mudah. Konflik selalu membuat situasi serba sulit. Bentrok seringkali mendera masyarakat sekitar hutan yang tidak paham cara hidup berdampingan dengan harimau. Ujung perkara ini adalah desa-desa terpencil yang berkembang di tempat yang tidak semestinya: kawasan hutan produksi Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan Produksi (KPHP) Unit 1 Kerinci, Jambi. Terdapat tiga desa definitif yang mendekam di dalam kawasan hutan. Pada sekitar 1970-an, masyarakat mulai menghuni hutan, berkebun, dan berdiam di sana. Di peta kawasan hutan, wilayah ini berbentuk seperti gelembung balon: jalan masuknya sempit, lalu meluas di pedalaman.

Rumah warga disela oleh kebun dan ladang bukit. Tiga desa berkembang lantaran wilayah ini relatif datar di lanskap Kerinci yang berbukit-bukit. Cocok untuk membuka sawah, ladang, dan kebun. Tanpa disadari, permukiman dikepung belantara taman nasional yang menjadi kerajaan harimau sumatra.

Hutan produksi sebenarnya menyangga taman nasional untuk memperluas jangkauan jelajah harimau. “Kawasan hutan produksi umumnya di wilayah penyangga taman nasional. Jadi, itu memang koridor harimau,” ujar Neneng Susanti, yang menjabat sebagai kepala KPHP Kerinci.

Taman nasional seluas 1,3 juta hektare lebih ini dikelilingi hutan produksi dan hutan lindung yang dikelola Kesatuan Pengelolaan Hutan di empat provinsi: Jambi, Bengkulu, Sumatra Barat, dan Sumatra Selatan.

Pada tataran bentang alam, bersambungnya taman nasional dengan kawasan hutan sungguh menggembirakan. Seluruh gugusan Bukit Barisan bagian tengah sambung-menyambung menjadi lanskap pelestarian harimau yang kompak. Tidak terputus-putus.

Tantangannya, permukiman yang terlanjur hadir di kawasan hutan itu butuh infrastruktur. Jalan dan lahan penghidupan memecah-belah wilayah hunian harimau. Pantas harimau memandang manusia sebagai kompetitor—bukan mangsa—dalam perebutan ruang hidup.

Konflik yang semakin memanas pun melahirkan para penafsir. Sebagai korban, masyarakat merasa berada di pihak yang benar, dan berhak memburu harimau. Hutang nyawa dibayar nyawa. Saat akal sehat memudar, kearifan lokal yang menjunjung tinggi derajat satwa ini pun runtuh.

Muncul pula pandangan, bahwa si penebar teror adalah harimau hasil pelepasliaran pihak kehutanan. Secara sosiologis, pandangan ini mempersulit penyelesaian sengketa. Melepasliarkan penguasa piramida makanan ini tentu melibatkan banyak pihak. Informasi pelepasliaran disebarluaskan dan tentu butuh kajian mendalam: jauh dari permukiman, habitat yang memadai, data jumlah harimau setempat, dan ketersediaan mangsa.
Baca Juga : Smong, Cerita Lokal yang Selamatkan Penduduk Simeulue dari Tsunami

Di pihak lain, tim mitigasi memahami satwa misterius itu dari sisi biologi dan ekologi. Harimau memangsa hewan piaraan lantaran mangsa di habitatnya berkurang. Perambahan dan pembukaan hutan merenggut habitat harimau. Atau, bisa jadi, sang harimau sedang mengajari anaknya berburu. Hewan piaraan yang bebas di luar kandang adalah mangsa yang mudah.

Arifin memperingatkan agar jangan sampai konflik berubah menjadi perburuan liar yang justru menjerumuskan masyarakat melakukan tindakan yang melanggar hukum. Oleh sebab itu, ketika level konflik masih berada dalam tingkatan sedang, tim mitigasi telah mengajak warga membersihkan jalan setapak yang rimbun. “Kita menghimbau warga agar ke ladang tidak sendirian, dan tidak keluar rumah menjelang magrib,” tutur polisi hutan teladan itu. Harimau memang mencari pakan dengan mengikuti waktu aktif mangsa, utamanya menjelang malam dan subuh.

“Kita selalu memberikan pemahaman mitigasi konflik kepada masyarakat. Bagaimana pun harimau harus dilindungi, dan masyarakat bisa hidup dengan aman,” ujar Arifin.

Sumber: Nationalgeographic.co.id

Human Tiger Conflict Mitigation Training in Kerinci

Sungai Penuh, February 1, 2018 – Competent national/local government apparatus, BUMN / BUMD, BUMN, NGOs and societies are needed to handle human and wildlife conflict, especially conflict with Sumatran tigers. Sumatran Tiger Project and Office of Kerinci Seblat National park, organized training on 1 February 2018 at Batang Merangin Sub-district Office, Tamiai, to equip community with knowledge and skills to handle human and wildlife conflict, especially in frequent tiger conflict location around Kerinci Seblat National Park (TNKS). This training is a follow-up mitigation of human and wildlife conflict training held for officers in national park, BKSDA, Polri and Pemda on 20-23 November 2017 in Curup-Bengkulu.

A total of 48 participants attended the February event showing high concern from the community. Participants in this training are village head and community representatives from 7 villages in Batang Merangin Sub-district: Tamiai Village, Batang Merangin Village, Pasar Tamiai Village, Lubuk Paku Village, Merangin Village, Baru Pulau Sangkar Village and Pulau Sangkar Village. This event was also attended by indigenous leaders, namely Depati Rencong Telang and Depati Muaro Langkap. TNKS partners like IUCN’s FFI program in Merangin and Forest Program II (KfW) officers in Batang Merangin sub-district, as well as representatives of local government i.e. KPHP Kerinci Unit 1 were also involved.

Head of Batang Merangin Sub-district, Heri Cipta, S.Sos, MH, at the beginning of his speech said that when wild animals such as Sumatran tigers, elephants, bears, deer and others are protected does not mean they are more important than humans, but rather for the sake of forest ecosystem. A good and balanced forest ecosystem will provide prosperity to the people living around it. “I would like to thank to TNKS and Sumatran Tiger GEF-UNDP project for fully supporting this training and we are glad if the community can be involved in the handling of conflict with tigers and other protected animals,” he said.

Bambang as trainer and officer of Forestry Police Natural Resource Conservation Center (BKSDA) Jambi said that according to Minister of Forestry regulation number: P.48 / Menhut-II / 2008 on Guidelines for Conflict Resolution Between Humans and Wildlife, human safety and wildlife conservation are two things that are equally important.

Conflict mitigation efforts are conducted to avoid greater losses to both parties. Rahmat Arifin as trainer from BBTNKS Section PTN I Kerinci Region added that in the handling of the conflict, people are encouraged to quickly provide information in case of conflict. Rahmat Arifin also presented reason of tiger conflict, when  it happened, steps of tiger conflict handling, appealed to community to avoid conflict with Sumatran tiger.

Mr Syafrizal, Depati Muaro Langkap said that “datuk” (local name for Sumatran tiger) has always been friends with humans. When lost in the forest, datuk will show the way so that the lost person can return to village. Mr. Syafrizal believed, in addition to violating customary law by members of the community, the conflict with Sumatran tiger generally occurs because of illegal gold mining activities by people from outside Batang Merangin District. “About a week ago, people patrolled for 11 days to stop hunters entering protected forests,” he said.

Representation of Kerinci Police Resort, Ipda Edi M Siswoyo, SE emphasized for public not to fall into legal cases. Edi Siswoyo said, each participant should also disseminate information on protected wildlife species to wider audience in community. Currently, cyber patrol team has been actively monitored wildlife crimes through social media. Ipda Edi also stated that wildlife trade brought serious problem and huge losses to the state.

Source: TN Kerinci Seblat

Human-Tiger Conflict Mitigation Campaign in Jambi

Balai TN Sembilang and BKSDA Jambi organized Human-Tiger Conflict Mitigation Campaign in Desa Simpang Datuk, Nipah Panjang District, Jambi.

Conflicts between humans and wildlife occur as a result of negative or direct interactions between humans and wildlife. Under certain circumstances the conflict may harm all parties involved in the conflict.

Conflicts are likely trigger negative attitudes towards wildlife, reducing human appreciation of wildlife and causing detrimental effects on conservation efforts.

The common disadvantages of conflict include, among others, the destruction of agricultural crops and or plantations and livestock breeding by wildlife, or even causing human casualties. On the other hand, it is not uncommon for conflicting wildlife to die after conflict resolution or actions.

In Jambi, especially in the area of ​​Berbak and Sembilang National Parks (TNBS) c onflicts between humans and wildlife that often occur are conflicts with Tiger and Crocodile.

In order to reduce the incidence of conflict especially with tiger, Office of TNBS along with KSDA Jambi and Zoological Society of London (ZSL) supported by GEF-UNDP project Sumatran Tiger organized preventive awareness efforts to Simpang Village residents and surrounding areas on December 15, 2017.

The event was held at Simpang Datuk Village, attended by Head of Simpang Datuk Village, Bhabinkamtibmas Simpang Datuk, members of communities from Simpang Datuk, Sungai Jeruk, Sungai Palas , Rantau Rasau Village and PT. Metro Yakin Jaya (MYJ).

In his opening remarks, Head of Simpang Datuk Village (Ambok Gauk bin Daeng P.) expressed his support for this campaign activity considering that in recent months tiger was seen entering PT. MYJ and people fell victim of a crocodile attack.

Village Head also hopes that such activities can be carried out continuously to raise public awareness not to disturb tiger and reduce incidence of crocodile attacks.

At the campaign event, KSDA Jambi Team provided technical solutions to prevent conflicts with tigers, procedures could be taken in case of wildlife conflicts, and the importance of Sumatran tiger conservation.

Bhabinkamtibmas Simpang Datuk also asked residents who posses firearm to report and hand over it to the Police because it violates emergency law no. 12 of 1951. Wildlife hunting of protected animals including tiger using firearm and snares are activities that violate criminal law.

Bhabinkamtibmas appealed to public who accidentally caught tiger using snares set up for boars at their own farm, to immediately report to authorities and not to injure or kill the tiger. If this is done then citizens will not be charged with lawsuits.

At the end of the event, calendars and billboards with information on how to avoid conflicts with wildlife and contact numbers of KSDA and TNBS in case of conflict were distributed to all attendees.

@SumatranTigerID

Actions Needed to Mitigate Human-Tiger Conflicts

Human-tiger conflict (HTC) inflicts economic and human lives. Action to mitigate human-tiger conflict is needed to prevent the loss of human property and life, while protecting the Sumatran tiger population.

Conflict with the biggest economic loss is when the tigers attack livestock so that the livestock are injured or killed. Human casualties occur when a tiger attacks people causing a person to be injured or killed.

For the first conflict, the tiger attacks on livestock, in the period 2001-2016, there had been 376 cases recorded (the largest number among four types of tiger and human conflict). While the tiger attack on humans occurred 184 times (data taken from the book “Spatio-Temporal Patterns of Human Tiger Conflicts in Sumatra)”.

Of 376 cases of tiger attacks on livestock, 1247 livestock fell prey to tiger attacks. Goats are in first position with 593 casualties (47%). In the second position is a cow with 210 casualties (16.8%), followed by buffalo, 83 casualties (6.6%), dogs, 169 casualties (13.6%) and chickens, 193 casualties (13.6%) .

In addition to attacking cattle, tigers in certain conditions also attack humans. The number of human deaths or injuries caused by tiger attacks reached 184 cases in the same period.

Habitat destruction is one of the triggers of human and tiger conflict. Due to the declining carrying capacity of ecosystems, as a major predator, tigers must hunt outside their territory. The number of prey and tiger area are increasingly reduced due to the destruction of forests, tigers’ natural habitat.

Actions to safeguard tiger populations and prevent damage to tiger ecosystems and habitats are being coordinated by Sumatran Tiger Project.

Working closely with various stakeholders, the project will increase capacity of protected area managers, build cross sector coordination systems for priority landscapes and promote sustainable financing for biodiversity management.

The project has held refresher training for METT (Management Effectiveness Tracking Tools) facilitators to improve management capacity of national parks. Working with the Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Education and Training Center and other stakeholders, The Sumatran Tiger Project has also developed SMART (Spatial Monitoring and Reporting Tool) to support forest patrolling system.

Education on the importance of Sumatran tigers conservation is continuously conducted through Sumatran Tiger communication network. In the near future the project will train relevant stakeholders with communication and advocacy strategy to promote Sumatran tiger as a symbol of healthy and balance ecosystems. If the tiger population increases, the environment will be sustainable and prosperous.

@SumatranTigerID

Human Tiger Conflict Highest in 2010

Human and tiger conflicts continued to increase from 2001 and peaked in 2010. In that year there were 162 conflicts occurring predominantly from cases of tigers attacking cattle and tigers roaming around villages or residential areas.

After 2010, number of human and tiger conflicts continues to decline until 2016. The decline in the number of human and tiger conflicts is likely triggered by an increasing number of tigers being killed and displaced.

In the period 2001-2016, the number of tigers killed and displaced continued to increase. 130 tigers who died due to human and tiger conflicts. Only 5 tigers were transferred to other conservation sites after the conflict. A total of 43 tigers were sent to the zoo.

The number of tigers that ran after the conflict reached 879 tigers. of that number, as many as 8 tigers ran in the wounded condition. The number of dead and displaced tigers could have a negative impact on the tiger population.

@SumatranTigerID