Kesadaran Konservasi Satwa Liar Masih Sangat Rendah

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Pernyataan di atas disampaikan oleh Prof. Dr. Satyawan Pudyatmoko, M.Sc., IPU dalam Pidato Pengukuhan Jabatan Guru Besar dalam Bidang Ilmu Pengelolaan Satwa Liar, Fakultas Kehutanan, Universitas Gadjah Mada yang dilaksanakan pada hari Selasa, 25 Februari 2020.

Dalam pidato yang berjudul “Merawat Hubungan Manusia dan Satwa Liar” ini, Profesor Satyawan menyatakan, saat ini, tingkat laju kepunahan spesies telah mencapai 100-1000 kali lebih tinggi dari pada laju kepunahan alami. Kurang lebih 10-30% spesies mamalia, burung dan amfibi terancam punah.

“Sekarang kita telah memasuki gelombang kepunahan massal ke-6,” ujar Prof. Satyawan. Gelombang kepunahan massal sebelumnya, yaitu kepunahan massal yang ke-5, menurut Prof. Satyawan terjadi sekitar 65 juta tahun yang lalu yang menyebabkan musnahnya jenis-jenis dinosaurus.

Salah satu ancaman serius dalam pelestarian keanekaragaman hayati adalah perdagangan global satwa liar.

“Pasar gelap satwa liar adalah bisnis yang sangat menguntungkan setelah obat-obat terlarang, persenjataan dan barang-barang palsu,” tutur Prof. Satyawan mengutip penelitian Campbell et al., 2019. “Nilai jual beli satwa ilegal ditaksir mencapai US$7-23 miliar per tahun dan dioperasikan oleh organisasi kriminal yang sangat profesional,” tambahnya lagi.

Perdagangan satwa liar adalah bentuk kejahatan trans-nasional yang sangat serius dan terkait dengan bentuk-bentuk kejahatan yang lain seperti korupsi dan penguatan jaringan kriminal internasional. “Perdagangan satwa liar ilegal juga mendorong penyebaran penyakit infeksi,” tutur Prof. Satyawan.

Pernyataan ini sangat relevan dengan kasus penyebaran virus corona (COVID-19) yang saat ini masih berlangsung. Sebagaimana diberitakan oleh Kantor Berita Antara, Badan legislatif China akan secepatnya melarang perdagangan dan konsumsi hewan liar sebagai salah satu upaya negara itu mengatasi wabah virus corona (COVID-19) yang telah mengorbankan ribuan jiwa.

Indonesia sebagai negara dengan keanekaragaman hayati yang tinggi menjadi lokasi yang tingkat ancaman terhadap keanekaragaman hayati yang juga tinggi (hot spot). “Salah satu ukuran dari hot spot adalah laju hilangnya habitat. Dengan makin berkurangnya habitat, potensi konflik manusia dan satwa liar makin meningkat,” ujar Prof. Satyawan.

Prof. Satyawan menegaskan, adanya serangan harimau, gajah, monyet ekor panjang ke lahan garapan manusia adalah akibat dari perebutan ruang hidup antara manusia dan satwa liar.

“Pada umumnya hilangnya habitat terjadi akibat perubahan hutan menjadi lahan-lahan budi daya (pertanian, perkebunan dan hutan tanaman industri) serta infrastruktur yang dianggap lebih produktif dan lebih relevan untuk perekonomian negara,” tuturnya.

Padahal dalam perspektif ekonomi, keanekaragaman hayati berpengaruh langsung terhadap kesejahteraan manusia. “Jasa ekosistem yang diperankan oleh keanekaragaman hayati seperti penyerbukan, pemurnian air, pencegahan banjir dan penyerapan karbon ditaksir bernilai US$125-140 triliun per tahun, lebih dari separuh Produk Domestik Bruto Dunia,” ujarnya. “Oleh karena itu satwa liar bukan sekedar sumber daya atau komoditas yang bisa diperjualbelikan atau dinilai dengan uang.” tambahnya lagi.

Prof. Satyawan menyatakan, satwa liar juga memberikan kontribusi yang besar pada perkembangan ilmu kesehatan. Buku “Sustaining Life: How Human Health Depends on Biodiversity” mengidentifikasi tujuh grup organisme yang memiliki peran kunci untuk kesehatan manusia serta menguraikan bagaimana pengaruh hilangnya organisme tersebut terhadap manusia. “Dari tujuh grup organisme tersebut, enam grup diantaranya adalah jenis satwa liar,” tutur Prof. Satyawan.

Manusia adalah sub-sistem dari alam. Dalam perspektif koevolusi tidak ada spesies yang lebih penting dari pada spesies lain dan tidak ada spesies yang lebih berharga. “Oleh karena itu semua spesies harus dihargai keberadaannya dan tidak bisa dinilai semata-mata sebagai sumber daya,” tegas Prof. Satyawan.

Namun Prof. Setyawan mengingatkan, walaupun sudah diuraikan nilai-nilai satwa liar bagi kemaslahatan manusia, namun kesadaran konservasi satwa liar masih sangat rendah, baik di level masyarakat maupun para pengambil kebijakan. Sehingga, “Tidak mudah untuk mendamaikan konflik-konflik kepentingan dalam perebutan ruang hidup antara satwa liar dan manusia,” tuturnya.

Lemahnya inovasi teknologi pertanian dan rendahnya ketersediaan lahan akan meningkatkan kompetisi satwa dan manusia. “Ini adalah tantangan terberat bagi para konservasionis satwa,” ujar Prof. Satyawan.

Menurutnya, konservasi satwa liar adalah ilmu sekaligus seni. “Diperlakukan kemampuan dalam meramu berbagai disiplin ilmu, serta melakukan komunikasi dan persuasi dengan para pemangku kepentingan,” tutur Prof. Satyawan.

@SumatranTigerID

Preventing Wildlife Conflicts, Saving Lifes

The Colt’s engine growling across the dirt road, partly still muddy, from the rain last night. The car whose two rear tires were wrapped around by chains moving slowly but steadily passing sloppy terrains.

Representatives from local government, Ministry of Environment and Forestry, Police, TNI, Sumatran Tiger Project, philanthropic organization and non-governmental organizations sit – some of them standing – on the truck. “The more passengers, the truck becoming more stable on the road,” said the driver who guided our group.

This group has just finished attending village level Wildlife Conflict Task Force Meeting in Margomulyo Village, Semaka District, Tanggamus District, Lampung Province, organized by Wildlife Conservation Society – Indonesia Program (WCS-IP) supported by Sumatran Tiger Project , GEF, UNDP, KFW, German Cooperation and USAID.

WCS-IP in collaboration with Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park Office and Lampung Provincial Forest Service, gathered representatives of human and wildlife conflict mitigation task forces from various villages in Lampung, Bengkulu and Aceh.

Participants in this workshop shared knowledge and experiences in conflict mitigation and promote community-based human and wildlife conflict management approaches at site (village) level. The initiative also strengthened community’s resilient in regional and national platforms.

Indra Exploitasia, Director of Biodiversity Conservation, in her written address stated, “The shrinking living space and home range of large animals such as Sumatran elephant and Sumatran tiger ultimately forced the two species entering village areas and ultimately destroyed community’s farming and preyed on residents’ livestock. ”

According to Indra, strong institutional supports and effective role-sharing between parties are needed to overcome human and wildlife conflicts.

Technical implementation unit in the field responded positively to Indra’s remark. Siti Muksidah, Head of National Park Management Region I at Bukit Barisan Selatan NP stated, “We, at the national park, also placed the handling of human and animal conflicts (KMS) as one of our main priorities,” she said.

According to Siti, collaborating with communities, BB BBSNP has successfully handled 225 human and wildlife cases between 2008 and June 2019. One type of cooperation with community was to form a task force at the village level through Independent Village Community (MDM) program, accompanied by WCS- IP and supported by Sumatran Tiger Project.

Noviar Andayani, WCS-IP Director stated, “By strengthening KMS mitigation at site level, villagers could actively preventing escalation of human and animal conflict at site level by providing an appropriate initial responses.” Until mid-2019, WCS-IP and other parties has been facilitating 22 Independent Village Community units, including establishing task forces for conflict at site level.

The Deputy Governor of Lampung, Chusnunia Chalim, appreciated the workshop which took place on November 24-25. “Government realizes that human and wildlife conflict harming not only to citizens but also adversely affecting number and distribution of tiger and elephant populations which are charismatic animals of Sumatra,” he said.

As living creatures, wildlife and humans have the right to live. Thus we must be able to live side by side with other living creatures by preventing conflict and maintaining ecosystem balance.

“Without animals, the balance of ecosystem could not be materialized. Animals have function controlling pests and pollinating plants such as coffee that is community’s commodity,” Noviar Andayani said. Humans will not be able to do the task themself.

In this workshop, representatives of 16 Villages in Lampung, Bengkulu and Aceh Provinces also signed Margomulyo Declaration. They agreed to form a network of village-level human and wildlife conflict task forces throughout Sumatra.

This network will serve as communication and learning forum in overcoming conflict to help community’s welfare and wildlife conservation in Sumatra. Hopefully this good intention can continue to be implemented with the support of all parties.

@SumatranTigerID

National Park Team Arrests 2 Suspects of Sumatran Tiger Traders

Bravo! Highest appreciation for team of officers from Kerinci Seblat National Park. BBTNKS team successfully arrested two suspected traffickers in Jalan Lintas Sumatra tiger Bangko – Kerinci, Rengas Island Village, District Merangin, Jambi province on Tuesday evening, on August 14, 2018.

Two suspects of Sumatran tiger trading bear initials of S (34 years), Beringin Tinggi village residents and B (30 years old), resident of the village of Rantau Suli, in East Jangkat, Merangin District, Jambi Province.

Together with the suspects, TNKS officers secured several evidences: one sheet of wet Sumatran tiger skin, one pack of tiger bones weighing 6.8 kg and equipments (a backpack and two vehicles) used by the suspect.

Success of this arrest was the result of an investigation by Kerinci Seblat National Park team conducted since 8 August. TNKS team then coordinated with the Merangin Police Resort. Perpetrators and evidence currently detained at Merangin District Police to follow further legal proceedings. Law enforcement is one of keys to protect endangered animals including Sumatran tigers.

@SumatranTigerID

Loss of Wildlife Habitat, Main Driver of Zoonosis

Degradation and loss of wildlife habitat are the main drivers of zoonosis or infection that is transmitted among animals (especially vertebrates) to humans or vice versa. This was conveyed by Ibu Lulu ‘Agustina, Head of Biosafety, Focal Point One Health, Directorate of Biodiversity Conservation, Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

“The zoonotic threat level from degradation and habitat loss reached 44.8%,” he said during “Sumatran Strategic Disease Monitoring” Workshop held today, Wednesday, November 22 at Sahira Hotel, in Bogor. According to Forum Harimau Kita data, several wildlife species in Indonesia today have small populations and are located in some fragmented forest blocks. One of the species experiencing habitat fragmentation is Sumatran tiger, currently recorded totaling about 600 in nature in 23 landscapes throughout Sumatra.

With the isolation of population groups by human presence and land use changes for settlements, the edge effects faced by this tiger population are higher. The communities haveĀ livestocks and pets, are still actively hunting in the area by bringing hunting dogs.

Types of diseases that commonly infect animals have ability to adapt to environmental conditions and the presence of genetic mutations.

drh. Munawar Kholis, Chairman of Forum Harimau Kita, said, one of the diseases that can brings death to individual tigers is Canine Distemper caused by type of RNA viruses from the family of Paramyxoviridae. The disease initially detected in Russia, has possibility to spread in remaining tiger populations. The most potentially affected tigers are individual tigers residing in small population and close to human settlements where felids or canids are found. In addition to this disease, there are several other types of diseases that also need to be monitored by wildlife conservation practitioners and management authorities.

According to drh. Kholis, there are still many cases of conflict and death of wild tigers that are not sufficiently handled, so it is very necessary that the process of collecting, managing and inspecting the sample is coordinated by the competent authority (Directorate of KKH) to ensure cases which indicate dangerous disease can be handled appropriately.

Certain types of wildlife are not always easily sampled for health screening. Tiger is one example, to be able to do intentional sampling on tiger, we need to capture the tiger using a cage trap that is of course at risk. On the other hand there are frequent conflicts that result in tiger being captured, but the samples are not properly taken.

Field conditions also often encounter situations that are not ideal in terms of management and storage of samples. It is therefore necessary to have a team with the expertise given the mandate to coordinate and manage the sample to work with a laboratory that is trusted to continuously and systematically detect the types of dangerous diseases for wildlife and diseases that have the potential to spread between wildlife and livestock which can cause ecological losses.

Forum Harimau Kita is an association that has the vision and mission of preserving Sumatran Tiger and cooperating with various non-governmental organizations and government. Discussions with ecologists, wildlife health and conservation actors at field illustrate the need for a formal mechanism for managing information and samples from various sources to be best utilized in studying and collecting types of wildlife diseases.

One of Forum Harimau Kita strategies in supporting Sumatran tiger conservation is by facilitating initiatives at the national level with strategic value to synergize with the existing programs related to monitoring of dangerous diseases in Indonesia. Forum Harimau Kita is also a partner of Sumatran Tiger Project.

The government has developed One-Health concept to monitor diseases from domestic animals and wildlife. According to Mrs. Lulu ‘One Health is the concept of handling zoonotic disease and infectious diseases of emerging infections (PIE) implemented through integrated communication mechanisms, coordination and collaboration between 3 ministries, Ministry of Agriculture, Ministry of Health and Ministry of Environment and Forestry.

@SumatranTigerID