TNBBS Berhasil Kembangkan Sistem Pengamatan Harimau

Sorry, this entry is only available in Indonesian. For the sake of viewer convenience, the content is shown below in the alternative language. You may click the link to switch the active language.

Taman Nasional Bukit Barisan Selatan (TNBBS) mencakup total area seluas 330.853,23 ha, terletak di dua provinsi, Provinsi Lampung dan Bengkulu (dengan proporsi luasan terbesar di Provinsi Lampung).

Visi dari TNBBS adalah sebagai habitat pelestarian harimau sumatera, badak sumatera dan gajah sumatera serta perlindungan sistem peyangga kehidupan yang didukung oleh pemberdayaan masyarakat secara berkelanjutan.

TNBBS juga menjadi satu dari tiga taman nasional di Sumatera yang menjadi bagian dari Tropical Rainforest Heritage of Sumatra (TRHS) yang ditetapkan oleh UNESCO karena nilai universal yang luar biasa dari budaya/properti alam yang membutuhkan perlindungan untuk kepentingan seluruh umat manusia.

Pengamatan adalah survei secara berkala terhadap satu objek tertentu untuk melihat dinamika/perubahan yang terjadi terhadap objek tersebut serta untuk memahami kemungkinan faktor-faktor yang menyebabkan perubahan tersebut terjadi. Dalam hal ini obyek yang diamati adalah harimau, satwa-mangsa, dan hutan (deforestasi) di TNBBS.

Secara lebih spesifik sistem pengamatan harimau Sumatra merujuk pada perkembangan pengelolaan pusat data (database) kamera penjebak dengan fokus pada individu harimau.

Kamera penjebak merupakan alat yang sering digunakan di dalam survei pendugaan populasi harimau. Dari survei dengan mempergunakan kamera penjebak maka data dasar yang akan diperoleh adalah berupa gambar/video dari individu harimau serta lokasi dimana individu tersebut tertangkap oleh kamera penjebak.

Data yang terkumpul dari survei dengan mempergunakan kamera penjebak secara berkala selain dapat memberikan informasi populasi (kepadatan) harimau dalam waktu tertentu dapat juga digunakan untuk memonitor apakah individu harimau (setiap individu harimau memiliki keunikan pada pola loreng) yang tertangkap pada survei kamera penjebak pemasangan kamera penjebak sebelumnya masih tertangkap juga pada periode pemasangan berikutnya.

Kamera penjebak juga sering digunakan dalam kegiatan mitigasi konflik satwa liar dengan manusia dengan tujuan untuk memastikan keberadaan harimau di sekitar desa/pemukiman serta kegiatan pengamatan (monitoring) aktivitas manusia dan satwa liar pada area-area tertentu (misalnya pengamatan dampak jalan).

Balai Besar Taman Nasional Bukit Barisan Selatan didukung oleh Proyek Sumatran Tiger dan mitra sejak awal tahun 2017 mulai merapikan data kamera penjebak hasil dari berbagai kegiatan yang menggunakan kamera penjebak.

Perangkat lunak yang dipakai untuk identifikasi individu harimau adalah  ExtractCompare. ExtractCompare merupakan sebuah perangkat lunak yang dikembangkan oleh Conservation Research, Ltd. untuk pengelolaan foto-foto satwa. Perangkat lunak ini dapat mengenali individu satwa berdasarkan pola unik alami yang terlihat pada tubuhnya.

Saat ini, ExtractCompare sudah diaplikasikan untuk berbagai jenis satwa yang memiliki penanda individu pada tubuhnya, seperti harimau, macan tutul, hiu, dan salamander. Perangkat lunak tersebut diintegrasikan dengan Microsoft Access sebagai sistem manajemen data untuk menyimpan informasi foto yang diproses.

Hasil dari proses analisis dari semua data sampai dengan bulan Maret 2019 diperoleh 425 foto harimau dalam pangkalan data ExtractCompare yang terdiri dari 151 foto sisi kiri dan 154 foto sisi kanan (120 foto tidak diekstrak karena merupakan foto dari event yang sama atau foto yang buram).

Data yang telah dimasukkan dalam pangkalan data berasal dari tahun 2010 hingga 2018. Berdasarkan perpustakaan foto tersebut, telah diidentifikasi 106 individu (43 betina, 16 jantan, 47 tidak diketahui jenis kelaminnya). Data juga mencatat terdapat 31 individu harimau (20 betina, 5 jantan) yang memiliki informasi pola loreng lengkap di kedua tubuhnya.

Perlu dicatat bahwa jumlah 106 individu bukanlah merupakan jumlah harimau yang ada di TNBBS saat ini, melainkan jumlah individu yang ada di pangkalan data foto harimau TNBBS. Angka tersebut merupakan total individu yang terekam sejak tahun 2010 dan terdapat kemungkinan bahwa ada harimau mati selama kisaran waktu 2010 hingga 2019. Penambahan data-data yang baru akan lebih memperkuat hasil identifikasi individu harimau ini.

Dari 106 individu harimau yang telah diidentifikasi di TNBBS terlihat bahwa jantan dan betina ditemukan cukup tersebar merata di TNBBS tetapi dengan jumlah individu betina yang lebih banyak dibandingkan dengan yang jantan.

Yang tak kalah menarik, dari data yang tersedia ini juga bisa diperkirakan ruang jelajah harimau walaupun hanya berupa perkiraan kasar (penentuan area jelajah berdasarkan data kamera perangkap bukan merupakan metoda yang ideal dimana disarankan untuk mempergunakan GPS Collar). Diperlukan paling sedikit data 3 lokasi temuan suatu individu harimau untuk memperkirakannya.

Dari hasil analisis data kamera perangkap terlihat harimau jantan memiliki ruang jelajah (rata-rata 3.795 ha) yang lebih luas daripada harimau betina (rata-rata 787 ha). Harimau bersifat teritorial (dan dengan daerah jelajah yang lebih luas, kurang lebih pernah tercatat di Sumatera seluas 23.600 hektar) dengan rata-rata ruang teritori jantan seluas 1.500 – 2.000 hektar. Harimau betina biasanya memiliki teritori yang lebih kecil. Luasan area jelajah dan teritori sangat tergantung pada kondisi lingkungan, sumber pakan, jenis kelamin, dan kelas umur.

Dari hasil sementara ini, dengan luas area jelajah yang hampir sama atau lebih kecil dari luasan teritori (sumber data luasan teritori dari referensi) kemungkinan menunjukkan potensi satwa mangsa yang masih baik untuk mempertahankan populasi harimau di TNBBS. Hasil dari survei populasi harimau pada tahun 2015 menunjukkan bahwa area survei (IPZ-Intensive Protection Zone TNBBS) memiliki potensi satwa mangsa yang masih banyak (Pusparini dkk. 2018).

Ketersediaan sistem pengamatan harimau sangat penting guna memastikan sistem perlindungan terhadap harimau Sumatra dilakukan berdasarkan data dan informasi yang tepat. Yang diperlukan adalah memastikan keberlanjutan sistem pengamatan harimau yang telah dibangun dan peningkatan kapasitas staf taman nasional yang telah dilakukan.

@SumatranTigerID

 

Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park Promotes Patrolling Procedures

Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park, supported by Sumatran Tiger Project, promoted patrol procedures (protap) between July 1-2, 2019 at the Regional Office of Bengkunat Region II, Pesisir Barat.

“This patrolling procedures support implementation of patrols so that they can run effectively. The ‘protap’ also accompanied by patrol reporting format so that there is uniformity in reporting. Other attachments could be found in Protap Book and Polhut Pocket Book, “said Jimmy Fonda, SH, Head of Bengkunat Region II SPTN talking about protap in his office.

BBS NP socialized protap book at regional section level and conducted SMART Patrol evaluation at section level.

Socialization was held in collaboration between BBS NP, Sumatran Tiger Project GEF-UNDP, and WCS-IP and attended by four resorts in the region II section of Bengkunat; Way Haru Resort, Ngambur Resort, Pemihan Resort, Biha Resort, MMP (Polhut Partner Community), PEH, PPNPM, WCS patrol team, YABI patrol team, WWF, RC Sumatran Tiger Project.

Agus Hartono, S. Sos, Head of Bengkunat SPTN Region II was resource person for patrol protap. Wawan Eviyanto, S.P, MM, Head of Planning, Protection, Preservation Section was resource person for Patrol Book and Head of North Sumatra National Police Office was resource person for Forestry Pocket Book.

The opportunity was also used to share understanding of contents of the procedure and its attachments, including actions or steps that the patrol team should take when getting findings at field level.

The event also facilitated sharing knowledge session between forest police officers. This event reduced confusion due to lack of clarity in understanding patrolling procedure where it could be consulted with Chief of Forestry Unit as patrol controller.

@SumatranTigerID

Way Canguk, We Will Return

The UNDP Regional Office in Bangkok represented by Tashi Dorji, UNDP Regional Technical Advisor (RTA) along with teams from Sumatran Tiger Project, GEF, Bureau of Overseas Cooperation, Directorate of Natural Resources and Ecosystem Conservation, KLHK and UNDP Indonesia recently completed a visit to the landscape Bukit Barisan Selatan, which became one of the Sumatran Tiger Project sites.

The field trip was held for four days from 20-23 October 2017. On the first day, Friday, October 20, 2017, the team departed from Jakarta to Lampung followed by a road trip to Kota Agung, Tanggamus District, where the office of Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (TN BBS) is located.

Agus Wahyudiono, Head of Central BBS and Ismanto, Head of Conservation Technique of BBS National Park together with NGO staff and partners warmly welcomed the team and discussed the conservation efforts in BBS National Park.

In the discussion, Agus said, cooperation with national park partners is very important because not all activities in National Park can be financed by State Budget (APBN). “Good cooperation with national park partners is needed to improve performance indicators for three key species; Sumatran tigers, elephants and rhinoceros,” he said.

In addition to partnering with Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (BB TN BBS), Sumatran Tiger Project also engaged with Wildlife Conservation Society (WCS) in this landscape. Tashi Dorji and the team had the opportunity to visit the WCS office after discussing with BBS Central Park.

WCS has a Wildlife Response Unit (WRU) tasked with reducing human-tiger conflicts that occur in villages around the park. WCS also has a SMART patrol team that works with other stakeholders to monitor the BBS area. Sumatran Tiger project supports these initiatives.

The two discussions with partners became our opening events in Bukit Barisan Selatan landscape. Saturday morning, October 21, 2017, the next day, we had the opportunity to visit Way Canguk Research Station which is managed by WCS. The research station is located in the southern part of Bukit Barisan National Park.

In the journey to Way Canguk, we had to cross the big river and several small rivers, through the wilderness to reach this research center.

The trip to Way Canguk runs smoothly. On that day, we still can cross River Pemerihan on foot. WCS team, forest police, South Bukit Barisan National Park Center accompanied us along the way. It takes about two hours for all team members to reach Way Canguk Research Center.

The Way Canguk research center has four main buildings that serve as a place to stay, library, research location, as well as an office. One more building is used for “dining room” and kitchen. We arrived at the location in the pouring rain at around 12.00 at noon.

After the break and lunch, in the afternoon around 15:00, Tashi Dorji and team members walked back into the forest to observe plants and wildlife monitoring locations accompanied by WCS team, forest police and TN BBS team.

Along the way, Tashi and team members observed giant trees and traces of wildlife such as wild pigs, deer, met with owa and gibbons and saw the location of a hornbill nest which is increasingly threatened by poaching.

Tashi also had a taste of fresh water from the red roots that are often consumed by the forest patrol team as an alternative to clean fresh water source.

The WCS team at the Way Canguk Research Center has identified 348 tree species, 56 species of mammals (8 species of primates), 47 species of frogs, 7 species of reptiles and 207 species of birds that are part of the region’s biodiversity.

After visiting the WCS field observation center, we then returned to Way Canguk Research Station for discussion, rest and overnight. Heavy rain poured on Way Canguk earth Saturday night. The rain continued to flush until Sunday morning.

Worry about the condition of the Pemerihan River had becoming evident as the water of the Pemerihan River – that we could previously passed on foot – was flooding due to cats and dogs rain that flushed Way Canguk the night before.

However, WCS and Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park team had prepared for this emergency situation. They were using inflated inner tube of tractor assisted by safety ropes to help all team members crossing the river. Crossing the river in the middle of a torrent stream became an unforgettable experience for all team members.

We recorded the scenes when team members were crossing the river. The video will be published in Sumatran Tiger communications network.

After successfully crossing the Sungai Pemerihan safely, we again walked to our first meeting point in the Village of Pemerihan to clean ourselves. Our clothes, pants and boots are all wet and dirty with mud. We also had to check the presence of leeches (Indonesian is pacet), blood-sucking animals, which stuck to our bodies. Thanks God, leeches were no longer be found as many as when we firstly arrived at Way Canguk Research Station the day before.

After cleaning up, Tashi and the rest of the team visited the Rhino Camp run by the Indonesian Badak Foundation and Pekon Margo Mulyo. In Pekon or Desa Margo Mulyo, WCS is working with the Sumatran Tiger Project to develop tiger-proof enclosures (TPE) to prevent tiger and wildlife conflicts. Livestock is one of important economic assets owned by the communities.

According to Firdaus Rahman, Landscape Program Manager of Bukit Barisan Selatan, WCS Indonesia Program, from the beginning of 2016 to October 2017, there had been 46 cases of human and tiger conflicts (HTC) in the villages around Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park.

Pak Sairin, villager who joined WCS TPE pilot program mentioned, wildlife conflicts did not only involving tigers, but also other wildlife species, like bears. “Bears often attack our cattle, sucking their blood to death,” he said. So the existence of TPE is very useful to reduce wildlife conflict.

Another benefit was expressed by Mrs. Sugiati, Pak Sairin’s wife. When wildlife failed to attack livestock in enclosed TPE cages, wildlife is less likely to return and look for other targets in other cages that have not yet implemented the TPE system. In effect, she and her children feel safer. “We are now no longer afraid to go out in the morning and evening for gardening, studying and other activities,” she said.

The Sumatran Tiger project until the end of the project period in 2020 will continue to work with stakeholders to increase conservation efforts in Bukit Barisan Selatan.

Synergy with WCS, Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park Office, central government, local governments and communities are needed to create sustainable conservation solutions. We found these synergy evidences in our visit this time. A very memorable visit, indeed. To Way Canguk, we will return.

@SumatranTigerID