In order to increase conservation efforts of biodiversity and ecosystems in conservation areas, it is very important for the state to be presented at field because the answers to various problems are found on the ground. The resort-based management in national parks can be a cornerstone of theory and practice in the creation of forest management. “Our own creations, not creations of others,” said Director General of Conservation and Natural Resources and Ecosystems (KSDAE) Ir. Wiratno, M.Sc in National Workshop on Strengthening Implementation of Resort Based Management in Indonesian Conservation Areas, held on 13-14 December 2017 at Royal Safari Garden, Cisarua, Bogor.
According to Ir. Waldemar Hasiholan, M.Si, from Center for Education and Training of Human Resources for Environment and Forestry, the resort is a management unit not working unit. The resort should have authority and working with standard operating procedures (SOPs). For example, resorts are tasked with performing functional patrols and community surveys, sections supervise and national park offices conduct ecosystem and landscape surveys. “So the work of resorts, sections and national park offices are never overlapping,” he said.
Waldemar said there are eight principles of forest management that must be implemented. The performance of resorts, sections and offices should support these eight principles.
Waldemar’s first principle, forest must be landscape-based, so there is interaction between the park with the surrounding areas or villages. The second principle of forest management is multi functional. The third principle, forest management has multiple products.
The fourth principle, forest management should be based on research, science and technology. The fifth principle, forest management should be community-based or multi stakeholder. The sixth principles, forest management shall be resort-based. The seventh principle, forest management must be accompanied by law enforcement efforts and the last principle, forest protection inherent in management.
Ir. Mangaraja Gunung Nababan, ex Head of Natural Resources Conservation Center of Papua stated that managing the resort-based conservation area corresponds to the people’s need and answer their unbelief. “People want the state to be presented in the field and the community wants to ensure there is no violation in the management of conservation areas,” said Gunung Nababan.
According to Gunung Nababan, in the principle of conservation area management, the absence of state in the field according to him is like a house without a resident or owner. “If there is no house owner, thieves will enter,” he said. By being present in the field then transparency will be realized. “Finding obstacles in the field and how to overcome them,” said Mount Nababan.
Welcoming statement from Director General of KSDAE, Waldemar stated, every national park office has the freedom to develop their area according to its own typology. “The issue in most conservation areas is social issues, so there must be a social approach and an ecological approach,” he said.
The above social approach addressing other issues faced by the conservation area: the lack of human resources. According to Gunung Nababan, human resources (HR) becoming major problem in management of conservation areas. “Why don’t we work with the community?” he said. Using social and cultural approaches, conservation area managers can be creative in forming groups such as community partnerships and forest police, “Most people, they have not been facilitated and empowered,” he added.
Sumatran Tiger project in the first year has reviewed the status of RBM implementation, current patrol system and law enforcement capacity in the national park before proposing management recommendations. The RBM-SMART forest patrol is conducted routinely, data analysis and strategic planning are also underway, protected area plans are developed and proposed.
In the second year, the project conducted a thematic RBM-SMART workshop for target national parks to start RBM-SMART system and evaluate RBM-SMART. The annual evaluation of RBM-SMART is carried out in the area concerned, in national parks and at national level; along with the feasibility study and verification of tiger protected areas.
The National Workshop on Strengthening the Implementation of Resort Based Management fulfills the first component of Sumatran Tiger Project which is to increase the effectiveness of key protected area management institutions. This thematic national workshop event – in addition to discussing the institutional issues – also discusses the needs of planning and budgeting as well as management of data and information in the implementation of Resort-Based Management of Conservation Area (Resort Based Management).
One testimony of the success of resort-based management is delivered by Firdaus Rahman, Landscape Program Manager of Bukit Barisan Selatan, WCS Indonesia Program. According to Firdaus, tiger population increase in Bukit Barisan Selatan is the result of resort-based management implementation in the field. Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park is one of Sumatran Tiger Project locations.
Sumatran Tiger Project and WCS conduct a SMART-based patrol activity in Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park (TNBBS), particularly in Intensive Protection Zone covering 7 resorts of 17 resorts within the Bukit Barisan Selatan National Park. This is in line with efforts to improve effectiveness of priority conservation areas management in Sumatra, which is one of the main components of the project.
Intensive Protection Zone Area, decided by Decree of Director General of PHKA No SK.152 / IV-Set / 2015 Year 2015 on Intensive Protection Zone Development Policy as an effort to increase Sumatran Rhino population.
In its development, IPZ determination is not only beneficial for rhinoceros species but also for other key species such as tigers and Sumatran elephants.
The results of camera trap survey conducted by WCS team, the tiger population density increased from 1.6 tigers / 100 km2 in 2002 to 2.8 tigers / 100 km2 by 2015. The proportion of male and female tigers is 1: 3.
WCS and TN BBS from May 21 to November 20, 2015 have completed surveys of tiger populations and prey using surveillance cameras. Two facing camera traps had been successfully installed in 65 grids. Data from two grids could not be taken data because the camera is lost.
The results of this 2015 survey form the basis for a 2018 survey to assess whether tiger populations have improved in line with the increasing effectiveness of safeguards in conservation areas.
According to Rudijanta Tjahja Nugraha, National Project Manager, Sumatran Tiger Project, the workshop will not end here. “There are many advanced scenarios, one of them is giving input to the director general regulation,” he said. The Forum will also develop the RBM guidelines by providing the RBM indicator points and best practices that existed so far. “So it gives flexibility for colleagues to apply it,” he said.
According to Rudi, resort-based management (RBM) of conservation area can not be uniformed and has its own character. “That’s why the national park offices are freed to innovate. There should be consensus on the data so the data can support decisions taken at central level, “he added.
According to Director General of KSDAE, Wiratno, the technical implementation unit (UPT) should be responsible for potential development, KSDAE strength is evidence when the UPT is strong. “UPT is strong if they are given the discretion to use his brain and his heart. Strengthening UPT is my target. Change should be felt by people around the conservation area, “he said. Therefore, the Director General re-emphasized how important for national park officers to go to the field where they can find solutions to various problems. “Flying teams fly to help these UPT (to implement resort based management), please do support them,” he concluded.